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Problems Part One 

 
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General Problem: Non-unique answers.
Solution:  use a fill-in-the-blank question that uses this form: Text
abc_______ text.  Abc is part of the answer.  If we underline abc, it
requires extra coding, which is cumbersome.  A simple rule change solves the
problem.  When abc_______ appears in a fill-in-the-blank question, the rule
is that abc appears in the answer.

This really solves a big problem, and is a good replacement for true-false flashcards.
 ***The abc can be any length.***

Here's an example:

There are no extra_______ hemorrhagic strokes. (You can use partial words in blanks, as long as you write the entire word in the answer.)

extracranial  (even though extra is not underlined, we expect the whole word to be produced in the answer.)

More examples of hints are here.
 

Each of the following flashcards has a problem. We'll show you what each problem is and how to solve it.

Problem flashcard:
Q: The _______ of a drug is affected by its rate of absorption.  
A: half-life
  

The problem here is that the question has more than one possible answer. The question can be rephrased as follows:

Q: The half-life of a drug is affected by its rate of a_______.
A: absorption

Problem flashcard:
Q: Constipation is an _______ of morphine used for pain control.  
A: Adverse drug reaction.

The answer to a fill-in-the-blank flashcard should have no capitalization or period unless it begins a sentence, in which case it should be capitalized. The correct answer should be: adverse drug reaction

Problem flashcard:
Q: Pyruvate is _______.    
A: the end product of glycolysis  

Here there is not a unique answer to the question. The question can be reconstructed as follows:  
Q: Pyruvate is the end product of _______.  
A: glycolysis

Problem flashcard:
Q: What is orientation?  
A: The relative position of atoms in compounds.
 

Here the flashcard is too vague and general. It should be expanded as follows: 
Q: Concerning atoms, what is orientation?
A: The relative position of atoms in compounds.

Problem flashcard:
Q: What is a synthesis reaction?  
A: Reaction that combines two or more reactants to form a more complex product.

Here the answer is grammatically incorrect. It should be: A reaction that combines two or more reactants to form a more complex product.

Problem flashcard:
Q: In a synthesis reaction, chemical bonds are...
A: Formed.

We do not use the ellipsis for flashcards because they tend to be confusing. Use a fill-in instead (note the answer is lower case without a period):
Q: In a synthesis reaction, chemical bonds are _______.
A: formed

Problem flashcard:
Q: What are phagocytes?  
A: cells that can engulf particles such as foreign matter, bacteria, microorganisms, aged red blood cells and other cell fragments

The answer to a question that is a complete sentence should begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Furthermore, the question is structured such that the answer is too lengthy and has too many fragments of information (for more about fragments, please refer to the training program). This can be solved by switching the question and the answer:
Q: What type of cells can engulf particles such as foreign matter, bacteria, microorganisms, aged red blood cells and other fragments? 
A: Phagocytes.

Problem flashcard:
Q: What are lymphocytes
A: white blood cells that fight infection and disease  

Again the answer should begin with a capital letter and end with a period: White blood cells that fight infection and disease.

Problem flashcard:
Q: Lymphocytes fight infection and disease by _______.
A: identifying foreign substances and producing antibodies   

Here the answer is incomplete. The complete answer is: identifying foreign substances, producing antibodies, and/or by attacking the foreign substance itself
But that requires an answer that is too lengthy. This can be solved as follows: 
Q: Lymphocytes fight infection and disease by identifying foreign substances, producing antibodies, and/or_______.
A: attacking the foreign substances directly

(A fill-in-the-blank answer requires no period and should not be capitalized unless it begins a sentence.) There is enough information here for several flashcards. 
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